Blog, Events

Sunny Sunday in May

It’s just a sunny Sunday in May and the upcoming day the weather will be good too in The Netherlands according to the weather forecasts.

The last couple of days I have been busy with study, travelling as a little tourist in my own country and family and friends. As well as going to some IT related events and speaking to some startup businesses. These days have been very inspiring and I am planning something to do during summer as a blog tour. Ideas ideas and ideas. And it is all noted in my new notebook – in the other little one was no space left for all my ideas while being travelling now and then. Are you curious for where I have been to the past couple of days? Take a look at my Instagram or LinkedIn for parts of the answer. The rest will be blogged about.

Have a nice sunny Sunday!

Greetings by Sophie

Books

Between Title and Position – Marja Visscher

'Tussen rang en stand' [NL] - written by Marja Visscher.
‘Tussen rang en stand’ [NL] – written by Marja Visscher. Cover copyright by publisher Zomer & Keuning, official website link in the image.
My book review of “Between Title and Position [EN] | Tussen rang en stand [NL]” written by Marja Visscher

In my view…

This partly true-life story combines history and fiction. The author has done a lot of research to this person who really existed and to the historical background of the environment. I love reading those kind of books to retrieve a kind of imagination of how people have lived back then. The story starts in the midst of the 18th century (~1753) and tells about the life of Sara Louisa du Faget van Assendelft. She lives together with her parents in The Hague, The Netherlands, in a very famous street where the nobility lived. The ‘jours’, high tea’s, card, gambling and dinner parties are an every days subject. Your title is very important and your position can be of influence. Sara decides to explore more of life than the daily routines she experiences in The Hague. Together with her best friend and neighbour Hille Staal, she travels to the southern part of South Holland. She travels to Heinenoord where her family has an estate that needs some renovation due to storms of the past couple of years. What happens there during the first few months, changes her life forever. She could lose her position, she could lose her title. And the people do treat her like a person with status, not being just one of them who comes for a mindful peace and a renovation.

Writing style / spelling

In this book I have found no writing or spelling errors. It reads very lightly and the pace is normal to quick. Now and then it lets you think and now and then it speeds up. But this also happens because of the storytelling and the gaps in time that now and then occur. Especially more towards the end of the book so the pace of reading speeds up.

Main characters

Besides Sara Louisa du Faget, there are also many other persons mentioned now and then in the story. Her parents, her best friend Hille Staal and her dad Claudius Staal. In Heinenoord lived also many people who helped with and during the renovation. These persons were: Maaike Sevenbergen, Pieter Sevenbergen, Leeuwenburgh, Dirk van der Pligt and his kids, Teun Gorissen, Louter, Barendregt, and Dreesman. All these names are typical Dutch and some names appear really often in this part of Holland, even nowadays.

I hope you like the book too. It is worth to read it! I have described the beginning of the story but I am not quoting facts of how the story exactly develops – you have to read the book yourself and make your own opinion. 

Greetings by Sophie

Book Facts:

Continue reading “Between Title and Position – Marja Visscher”

Blog, Events

April 2017 update | Life of an IT student

Time flies when you are…

… busy

… having fun

… living life

… studying hard

… working on your career

… improving and expanding knowledge

… being active and sporting

… and take some rest now and then of course

— ‘April 4th, 2017, written by Sophie van den Akker’

Life of an IT student

Hello readers!

Time really flies between the end of winter and the beginning of spring. The last couple of weeks have been busy and inspiring, motivating by living life and having fun as well, and studying hard to improve my skills and expand my knowledge. Tomorrow is a big day – maybe I achieve my second Propedeuse at a University of Applied Sciences. This time in Software Engineering and I have already a Propedeuse degree in Media & Entertainment Management.

Today started a new project about making a Proof of Concept of an idea in ‘The Internet of Things’ sector. 
Have you ever heard of, or been in touch with, ‘The Internet of Things’ ?
. It seems like not even 50% of people worldwide have really heard about what it is – except for the terminology – and not even 25% has seen or experienced something – knowingly – about it. I will write about this project later on but I will not spoil the idea we have as a project group because we are also making this Proof of Concept for a real company. Tomorrow a final check of workshops before Girlsday. The day we promote coding among young girls a give a little workshop. I do this in the name of the organisation Dresscode Rotterdam, shortly Dresscode. Dresscode is a network of students that promote coding among young women and girls in high or primary or secondary school. We learn to give workshops as well and we design them. It is always a different experience and thursday on April 13th 2017 Girlsday is coming up throughout The Netherlands. Together with some fellow students we give some workshops from different parts of technical studies.

Let’s have a recap about the past two months:

February

In February the previous project was still part of that month. I did not like the project without frameworks, I have written about it in: January 2017 update | Life of an IT student .

The second week of February started with a new semester. This third trimester of the year that is still going on, started with Development Statistics with R and Analysis with Cyber Security. Both subjects are very interesting and different in learning and implementing.
I have also been a lot to the zoo these months because I had more free time and love to visit the zoo now and then when it is not too busy. I have also followed a tour ‘Behind the scenes of the Oceanium‘ in Diergaarde Blijdorp Zoo, Rotterdam. Another blog post will be written about this special tour. Meanwhile I was getting busier with study again but have also visited finally the musical ‘The Lion King’. Yes the Dutch version in the AFAS Circustheatre Scheveningen. But it was lovely and a really really good show! Another blog post especially about this musical visit will come up soon.

The video I made about a Polar Bear in the zoo. Copyright by Sophie van den Akker

The photo of the entrance of the circus theatre in Scheveningen. Copyright by Sophie van den Akker

The Ferris Wheel on the famous pier at the boulevard in Scheveningen. Copyright by Sophie van den Akker

March

In march I have been to a concert in the famous ‘Concertgebouw’ , classic music hall, in Amsterdam. A special concert about not many times performed pieces composed by the composer Mahler and other pieces composed by the composer Elgar. The conductor was Sir Elliot Gardiner and the mezzo soprano was Ann Hallenberg. What a beautiful concert! Classical music is not reviewed before on my blog though I play the piano and the soprano and alto saxophone. I will write a blog post about this as well. The experience of the concert, some investigation about the composers, the Concertgebouw Orchestra, the conductor and last but not least the mezzo soprano.

The concert in ‘Het Concertgebouw Amsterdam’. Copyright by Sophie van den Akker

Further on in March I have had some big deadlines for study and another exam week, but that is something that is – until I am doing an internship – always the matter. As a new experience I have given a workshop for teacher training students and I have had several meetings with students and teachers about Dresscode. And last but not least, during the last week of March the Dutch Book Week started! I have been to two talks, one with writer Marcel Möring interviewing writer Connie Palmen. And the talk following up was the talk again hosted by bookshop Donner, writer Marcel Möring interviewing Sonja Barend – a Dutch famous former television personality. It was both lovely and inspiring and a blog post will be coming up.

The two book talks in bookshop Donner, Rotterdam. Copyright by Sophie van den Akker

And as you see I have posted several photos on Instagram and share them now on my blog to have some visuals with my little updates.

How have been your February and March?

Greetings by Sophie

Blog

Rotterdam shows solidarity with the Union Jack

The terrible attack yesterday at Westminster, London. It has taken lives and many people are injured, some still critical. But it did not tear apart the strength of the love of people for each other. To help anywhere they can.

Rotterdam shows its solidarity for the victims and the braves and the helping, with the Union Jack for one day half-mast at the town hall.

And the sun was shining today. A new day, because life goes on, everybody united and not ripped apart by terror.

 

Thoughts from Sophie

Events, Music, YouTube

YouTube | Lindsey Stirling – Beauty and The Beast

Today I discovered this beautiful music video on YouTube from Lindsey Stirling.

The new film of Beauty and The Beast with Emma Watson as Belle and Dan Stevens as The Beast, had its première the 23rd of February in London.

It will be further released in cinemas on March 16, 2017 (Eastern Europe), March 17, 2017 (other parts of the world and USA), and in The Netherlands on March 29, 2017.

Why is it released so late in The Netherlands, or is it because of the translation…I don’t know…does not happen that often such a day difference. In Belgium it will be released on March 22, 2017.

Lindsey Stirling is a multi skilled artist: violinist, dancer, performance artist. She combines choreography with playing the violin.

And she is the upcoming weeks in Europe! (one mentioned per country, sometimes more events in a country; check it here)

European Tour

  • March 14, 2017: Jahrhunderthalle – Frankfurt, Germany
  • March 15, 2017: Hallenstadion – Zürich, Switzerland
  • March 17, 2017: O13 – Tilburg, The Netherlands
  • March 18, 2017: Rockhal – Luxembourg, Luxembourg
  • March 21, 2017: Ancienne Belgique – Brussels, Belgium
  • March 23, 2017: Zenith – Lille, France
  • April 3, 2017 – Eventim Apollo – London, United Kingdom
  • April 5, 2017 – Vicar Street – Dublin, Ireland

Lindsey Stirling – Beauty and The Beast

YouTube description:

Beauty and the Beast – Lindsey Stirling
Lindsey Stirling | Published on 13 Mar 2017 | SUBSCRIBED 9M
Check out a day in the life of Bell on tour Check out my new album https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/bra…
Head here for tour dates, tickets, and VIP upgrades: http://www.lindseystirling.com/
Follow me here: https://www.facebook.com/lindseystirl… https://twitter.com/LindseyStirling http://www.instagram.com/LindseyStirling
Sign up for my super-cool newsletter here: http://lindseystirling.fanbridge.com
Blog, Events, Lifestyle

Happy Sophie’s Blog Anniversary!

Happy Sophie’s Blog Anniversary!

Two years ago, in the early days of March, I started with this blog. I love reading and writing since I can read and write. Being creative with poems about animals, people or just things that happen during a normal day. Writing little stories with those poems and writing little stories in diaries. Now and then I thought about writing a book. I specified all the characters to start with, wrote the first half chapter and then…probably…my inspiration was gone or I was distracted in so many other things that can inspire you when you are a teenager. I was back then.

Before this blog I had as a young little girl my own “magazine” written in Word, I think this was during my Elementary School years. During my junior High School years, I had some designed ‘pet pages’ on Neopets and my own ‘Kindertent’ website with a fan page of ‘Harry Potter’ – somewhere until around 2006. And after a few years I started with my own Blogger.com website. This was somewhere during the summer holiday after graduating in 2011. Sadly I have deleted this blog, well I have transferred it to another version I made on Blogger and so on. Two blogs on Blogger and even a Google Sites blog – to have more creative possibilities – later and a little break….and it was March 2015.

During 2014 I was experiencing a bit with WordPress because this was the biggest ‘other blogging option’ left after my previous – not satisfying enough – tries. It took a couple of days before I was satisfied with the layout and thought I had all opportunities maximized in use. And back then when I just entered my early twenties…I started this blog! Two years later I am still in my early twenties though haha.

And maybe you have noticed for this anniversary: an own domain name and a new layout! 🙂 Read on for the whole story about my blogging experience.

The Headers

Twenty Fourteen theme, first header 2014 experiencing

I started back then with the ‘Twenty Fourteen’ theme and this header above.

Twenty Fourteen Theme, header 2 2015 Later on Hemingway Rewritten theme as well – switched back shortly

Later on I changed the header into a more photographic one with a butterfly. I love the blue colour of the butterfly and the green differences in the background, not just one color but a bit lively.

Theme Hemingway Rewritten primary Switched to Twenty Fourteen theme shortly – 2015

During the summer of 2015 when I started with my Facebook Page: Sophie’s Blog , I  thought about making my own featured images in a header style to show the category of a blog post. This way every post from then on has a featured image with information that shows to which category the blog post belongs. This is still my method only the header – and therefore also all those featured images by category – has changed.

2016 – Hemingway Rewritten theme for a long time

Simple and minimal became the new thing. Not to bright, to colourful or a bit sloppy. I started experiencing with a black and white header and attached through Photoshop symmetric two flowers bound by a line that marked my blog title and subtitle. Yes, I called my blog ‘Sophie’s Web’ because it was me writing on the web and experiencing what to do with it. Will it become a blog with one single subject? Will it become a personal website?

New layout and an own domain

Here we are! Anno 2017 at the blog anniversary. A new layout and a new own domain! Welcome to the .blog world!

2016 – Hemingway Rewritten theme shortly | 2016 + 2017 Button theme for a long time | 2017 – March: Dara Theme and own domain name

It became a mixture: A blog with all my personal interests. Not a completely single subject – or three what you see often too – blog. Not a specific book blog, film blog, series blog, IT blog, Lifestyle blog, cooking blog, recipes, gadgets and so on….

This became my combination of everything I am interested in and the subtitle of my previous header was already present in my subconscious – only doubting how it all would result.

The way it is nowadays, designed by myself in simply black and white and a touch of a curly blue sign, I feel most content with. I did some research on signs and if some were religious or had other meanings. This one does not have a particular meaning as far as I discovered. But every time when I see it, I see a bit of a music key in it. For example a twisted simplified G-clef. And I love the font too. It has also its little semi curly effects by thick and thin and straight and italic combined. Took a while before I found a font I was satisfied with.

Maybe I seem a bit picky in every aspect that has to do with my blog – such as menus, social buttons, widgets, fonts, headers, colors, sizes and so on… .
Even after two years, I won’t switch to something else than WordPress. I won’t change my whole personal website and blog.

This is who I am as a blogger, and blogging and reading and broaden my knowledge is what I like to do. Together with writing and telling – ya, people who know me personally know I can talk now and then a lot – stories about everything exciting and positive I experience. In such a broad interest because I love many sorts of things in life and I appreciate every big and every small little thing. Do things that let you smile or just enjoy.

I hope I’ll be for someone an inspiration to do joyful things in life.
Enjoy the little things as well such as watching a film, reading a book or just watching an episode of a series.
Or appreciating a nice photograph or quote or a nice supporting comment.
Appreciate it when someone gives you advice, you can probably learn from it.
Stay always true to yourself.
My blog let’s me smile for already just being there, the space where I can write stuff, gather all my interests an where I can be creative now and then.

I just keep on enjoying the joyful things in life and writing about it.
Thank you for reading this long – personal blogging – story!
Thank you for being one of my true blog fans!
Thank you for your advises!
Just thank you!

Cheers to this Happy Sophie’s Blog Anniversary!

Happily greetings by Sophie

Films

Restless (2012)

Poster from IMDb.com, their copyright.
Poster from IMDb.com, their copyright.
In my view…

The story is about a woman who is living her normal life in 1975. Thirty years after the end of World War II. Her mother is now and then a bit anxious and was until recently dependent on a wheelchair. The film is written with long flashbacks. Stories told from the mother to her daughter. And the daughter – Ruth – who is doing a research to the World War II and the role of some persons and secret services. The mother, who’s real name is not Mrs. Gilmartin but Eva Delectorskaya – has written everything down for her daughter so she can investigate what happened over 30 years ago and why her mother’s life might be still in danger.

I skip writing about the middle part because this would lead to factual spoilers. Some facts have not a lot to do with the characters or with predicting the story of the film, but give a little imagination of the settings in which the story of this film is written.

At a certain moment towards the end I found the flashbacks more confusing and they switched more quickly. But this was also important because it speeded it up a little bit and also held the tension of the film viewer close to the story.

The end – description of feelings – no facts spoiling

The end is in my opinion surprising, I did not expect that concluding end of the film. I predicted the end differently, way differently. But I did not exactly know what to expect either. The current time of the film – 1975  – was quite clear and in an average pace. But the end of the part of the flashbacks, was the part that was really surprising. Not only the end but in fact the whole part. You are constantly questioning yourself: what is yet to come?

But again, I did not expect that ending and the quickness the whole clue is being explained. So simply explained, so short, so genius. It felt like all the puzzle pieces of all characters and happenings fell into place.

The film has a sad end. And I don’t like it when people die or really good actors and actresses play an important role and one of the characters they play die. According to the story it had to be and I understand. And for the other main character, this leads to a happy end. So the film has a happy end as well.

The Writing

To write a screenplay like this – with such extremities in happy and sad, beloved and betrayed, well-kept secrets and conspiracies – is a skill not many people possesses as far as I have seen and discovered.

The Cast

This film has been made by a wonderful cast full of great British actors and actresses. Rufus Sewell who plays now and then the sweet guy and now and then the bad guy. Great actor for his role! And Michelle Dockery who is also known for her role in Downton Abbey, plays a sweet kind smart woman who knows how to stand her ground. Charlotte Rampling is the best known actress of this film. With her filmography of over 120 roles! And you will see her five! times this year in the cinemas. And of course the good lord of the Harry Potter films – after late Richard Harris – Michael Gambon! Also names that are coming up such as Alexander Fehling and Tom Brooke

 

Trailer:

I am not telling too much about the story – you have to see the film yourself and make your own opinion. I hope you like the film too. It is worth to watch it times and if you did not figure out the story completely, it is worth to watch it multiple times.

Greetings by Sophie

Film Facts:

Continue reading “Restless (2012)”

Books, Events, Pinterest

Atlas Maior – Belgica Foederata

Today I have visited a small exhibition in the National Library of The Netherlands. Wonderful books are exhibited there, accompanied with information. Nice little lessons about books in The Netherlands.

The ‘Atlas Maior’ is the largest atlas ever made. In Dutch more than 9 volumes, Latin 11 volumes, French 12 volumes, German 10 volumes and Spanish 10 volumes. Written by Joan Blaeu and published in Amsterdam between 1662 and 1672. The atlas has 594 different maps and around 3000 pages.

This is one of the maps, do you recognise some places?

Belgica Foederata (de noordelijke Nederlanden) Atlas Maior, Joan Blaeu, 1662. Copyright Edugis.nl on Pinterest
Belgica Foederata (de noordelijke Nederlanden) Atlas Maior, Joan Blaeu, 1662. Copyright Edugis.nl on Pinterest

The pinterest post:

Soon I will write about my experience of the exhibition and upload some photo’s.

Greetings by Sophie

Blog, Health, Lifestyle

Essay | Leprosy in the 12th and 21st century | Leprosy in the 12th century

The following parts of my essay have my own copyright in formulation of words, opinions and otherwise sources are mentioned.

The past couple of weeks I have followed the History of Healthcare course as an elective course to broaden my knowledge.
We had to give a presentation about a free chosen subject. I chose to give a presentation about the ‘Antiquity and the Olympics | Medicine in the pre Hippocratic Era’.
And as a final product I chose to write an essay about ‘Leprosy in the 12th and 21st century’.

For these blog posts I will divide my essay into four parts: ‘Introduction’, ‘What is Leprosy?’, ‘Leprosy in the 12th century‘, ‘Leprosy in the 21st century and a conclusion part’.

Greetings by Sophie

Leprosy in the 12 th century
The spreading and isolation

During the Middle Ages, leprosy was already known as an endemic disease that occurred now and then and mostly in the Middle East. Circa the eleventh and twelfth century, leprosy was spread more often the west, Western-Europe nowadays. In the southern parts of The Netherlands they started by isolate the infected humans from the healthy humans by gathering them into special houses for people with the leprosy disease. These houses were also known as the lazar houses and their number increased to numerously in the region of Artesia (now known as ‘Artois’) (Boelaert, 2014). It was not the first kind of isolation of leprosy infected humans because Jerusalem had already for centuries in history special villages outside their city for the sick and infectious people. (Wyler, 1959).

The Netherlands and Flanders

In 1106 A.D. was a lazar house founded in Sint-Omaars and in 1119 in Kamerijk. This was during the crusades and for a long time it was thought that those crusades increased the spreading of leprosy and caused an outbreak of the infection disease. This was misunderstood because the first lazar houses in Western Europe were already founded in the eleventh century. A century later lots of crusades, and the famous children’s crusade of 1212 in the thirteenth century, took place. But it was not illogical thought because of the long incubation period and medics did not
know exactly what was causing the infection disease. One of Flanders monarchy members was a leprosy victim. It was Boudewijn IV (1161 – 1185), king of Jerusalem and grandson of Fulco V from Anju the ancestor of the Flemish monarchy. His life with leprosy is documented by his nearest people and therefore it was thought that through contact of the crusaders with the Middle Eastern people, the leprosy disease was spread suddenly and rapidly. (Boelaert, 2014) (Porter, 2006)

Leprosy theory and diagnostics in the 12th century

During the twelfth century physicians were trying to figure out how leprosy was caused. By what? In which circumstances? What made it such a terrific disease?. What the physicians knew during the Middle Ages, was partly attributable to the humor theory of disease that was explained by the writings of the Greek author Galen (129 – 201 A.D.). Galen explained the humorism by four directions. (Grant, 2000)

In the Middle Ages the physicians believed that the black bile was the major culprit that causes leprosy. They believed that by an abnormal distribution of this fluid through the body, this was causing the illness and the later on disabilities. The physicians assumed that the liver was too dried out and hot at the same time which then caused a cooking temperature of the blood. And this blood transformed into the black bile residue. According to Galen this black bile was spreading throughout the body but not equally spread. (Grant, 2000).

Humorism according to Galen
Figure 2: Humorism according to Galen

In the centuries of the Middle Ages superstition was also common. The humanity which had to deal with the leprosy infection disease, believed that even lentils and meat of a donkey could contribute to the development of the disease. In the twelfth and thirteenth century, the physicians tried to search for an unnatural cause of leprosy rather than the already partially believed natural cause. The humorism of Galen was combined with the symptoms into a new four-part classification of the leprosy disease. The table is as follows:

table
(Boelaert, 2014) (Demaitre, 2007)

Leprosy treatment in the 12 th century

When a human was diagnosed in the twelfth century with one or (often) more types of leprosy, the human was sent to a lazar house unless he or she could pay a physician. This physician could advice a woman to take a bath full of herbs and menstrual blood. Because they believed that bad blood (the black bile) could be fought with strong blood. They believed that ‘the menstrual blood fought against the rotting of the leprosy’ (Boelaert, 2014). The physician advised men in rarely circumstances, that he should be castrated. During the twelfth century they also tried to prevent leprosy by bloodletting and catharsis (purgation). But there was not much known about what exactly caused the disease and how exactly to cure the humans and prevent others. It is in this period of superstition a miracle that an infection disease like leprosy, is accepted in general as a disease without exactly knowing or suspecting what did really cause this leprosy. Two enturies and a few decades later, humanism associated the Black Plague with leprosy. What was not right but it was not inconceivable either for that period of time. The Black Plague occurred in the 14th century and Leprosy exists already for at least 2000 years because in Christianity it is believed that Jesus Christ has healed a leper. (Boelaert, 2014) (Grant, 2000) (Porter, 2006).

Bibliography
  • Boelaert, J. R. (2014). De medische renaissance van de twaalfde eeuw. In J. R. Boelaert, De medische renaissance van de twaalfde eeuw (pp. 78 – 88). Antwerpen – Apeldoorn: Garant Uitgevers nv.
  • Demaitre, L. (2007). Leprosy in premodern medicine | A malady of the whole body. Baltimore: Baltimore Publishers.
  • Grant, M. (2000). Galen on Food and Diet. London and New York: Routledge. Hansen Disease – Frequently Asked Questions. (2017, January). Retrieved from HRSA:
    http://www.hrsa.gov/hansen-disease/
  • Porter, R. (2006). The Cambridge History of Medicine. In R. Porter, The Cambridge History of Medicine (pp. 27, 29, 68, 76, 90, 182, 359,). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wyler, W. (Director). (1959). Ben Hur [Motion Picture].
Blog, Health, Lifestyle

Essay | Leprosy in the 12th and 21st century | What is Leprosy?

The following parts of my essay have my own copyright in formulation of words, opinions and otherwise sources are mentioned.

The past couple of weeks I have followed the History of Healthcare course as an elective course to broaden my knowledge.
We had to give a presentation about a free chosen subject. I chose to give a presentation about the ‘Antiquity and the Olympics | Medicine in the pre Hippocratic Era’.
And as a final product I chose to write an essay about ‘Leprosy in the 12th and 21st century’.

For these blog posts I will divide my essay into four parts: ‘Introduction‘, ‘What is Leprosy?’, ‘Leprosy in the 12th century’, ‘Leprosy in the 21st century and a conclusion part’.

See the links for the previous posts of this series.

Greetings by Sophie

What is leprosy?
The ‘Mycobacterium leprae’

Leprosy is an infection disease that is cause by a bacteria. This bacteria is called in its original Latin ‘Mycobacterium leprae’, a bacillus spirally. (Ryan & Ray, 2004, pp. 451 – 453). The bacteria itself  has several characteristics in microbiology. It is an aerobic bacillus and protected by a thick fat surrounding which is unique for mycobacteria. But nonetheless the bacteria is very active because it is intracellular, full of acid, intercellular and pathogenic. Pathogenic means that the bacillus is of biological origin and is not often called as a poison. But this rare combination of a biological bacillus that is also acid-fast is a very dangerous combination. This all together is called the bacillus that causes leprosy, the ‘Mycobacterium leprae’. (McMurray, 1996) The bacteria is contagious and is usually transmitted through coughing or sneezing. There are some taboos about the disease, but in history it was not known yet.

The two extremes

Leprosy is in an advanced stage very good visible. You would expect that with such an aggressive bacillus that is described here above. But it depends on with which kind of leprosy the person is dealing with. Nowadays leprosy is divided into two extremes of the disease. One section is the ‘Tuberculoid leprosy’, which thanks its name to tuberculosis that is a bit alike but not the same. And the other section is the ‘Lepromatous leprosy’, which is the most known and recognizable section of the disease. (Poli Dermatologie, Academisch Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam, 2012) The ‘Lepromatous leprosy’ is also the most aggressive version of the two divided sections. The symptoms that occur in this section are the more visible symptoms and bacillus multiplies quickly and also the amount of bacillus that is present in the infected person is enormous. Therefore, the lesion is also larger and evolves quicker. (Boelaert, 2014)

The symptoms and the visuals

The most common symptom is that leprosy causes chronical wounds on the skin that heals very slowly and is hard to come across. And another common symptom is that leprosy causes facial malformations, deformities of the limbs such as missing fingers, toes or even complete limbs. It also causes muscle atrophy which means that the muscles are less vigorous and articular deformities are also common and visible in the movements of the infected person. (Boelaert, 2014). Another symptom of the leprosy disease is that it can also cause paralysis to the limbs, commonly hands and feet or blindness to the eyes. This makes the infected person gets unwillingly disabilities and becomes a partly disabled person. (Lepra Stichting, 2017)

Bibliography
  • Boelaert, J. R. (2014). De medische renaissance van de twaalfde eeuw. In J. R. Boelaert, De medischerenaissance van de twaalfde eeuw (pp. 78 – 88). Antwerpen – Apeldoorn: Garant Uitgeversnv.
  • Lepra Stichting. (2017, January). Wat is lepra? Retrieved from Lepra Stichting:https://www.leprastichting.nl/wat-doen-we/wat-is-lepra
  • McMurray, D. (1996). Mycobacteria and Nocardia. In S. Baron, Baron’s Medical Microbiology (4 ed.).Texas, United States of America: University of Texas Medical Branch.
  • Poli Dermatologie, Academisch Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam. (2012). Lepra (Leven met Lepra).Retrieved January 2017, from Huidziekten.nl:https://www.huidziekten.nl/folders/nederlands/lepra.htm
  • Ryan, K., & Ray, C. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology. United Kingdom: McGraw Hill.